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A Brief History of Codes Research

1. According to traditional Jewish sources the Torah in general, and the Book of Genesis in specific, contain a wealth of information in cryptic form. This information is encoded in a number of different ways. One of the ways mentioned is in the form of ELS's (Equidistant Letters Sequences). Several examples of this are given. Further documentation on this subject is in preparation.

2. About sixty years ago Rabbi Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl began to investigate ELS's. This research produced astonishing results, some of which were collected, posthumously, in the book Torat Chemed.

3. In '83 the mathematician Prof. Eliyahu Rips began to conduct quantitative research into the subject: He primarily investigated the occurrence of words as ELS's clustering at an appropriate place in the text. An impressive example of his work appeared in the periodical, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Vol. 151, Part I ('88), p 165.

4. Here is a chronicle of the events surrounding the publication of the Statistical Science paper (for a more detailed explanation click here):

5. In the winter of '88 the book The additional Dimension (Hamemad Hanosaf), by Doron Witztum, was published. This book presented many examples, primarily intuitive ones, illustrating the kinds of subjects covered by the phenomenon under discussion, and the typical geometrical patterns of the convergences.

6. Following publication of the paper in Statistical Science Prof. Rips was invited to give a guest lecture to the Israeli National Academy of Sciences on the subject of: "ELS's in the Book of Genesis: the Statistical Significance of the Phenomenon" (March '96).

7. Since WRR's experiment on the second list, other experiments involving different lists have been conducted, including several designed to replicate the original second list experiment. A number of these have been published as preprints, including one published in BDD, Journal of Torah and Scholarship [No. 7 (summer '98), Bar-Ilan University Press, Ramat-Gan]. Some of these papers can be found at this site. To read them click here.

8. At the beginning of '99, several lists of names and appellations were compiled by Dr Simcha Emanuel, a specialist in rabbinical history at Tel-Aviv University. He was engaged by MBBK (McKay, Bar-Natan, Bar-Hillel & Kalai), opponents of the Codes' research, and his work was guided by them without WRR's knowledge.

One of the lists was intended to "mimic" WRR's second list. Emanuel's new list contains names and appellations of the personalities included in WRR's second list which he collected without seeing Prof. Havlin's original names and appellations for it.

We repeated WRR's original experiment exactly, with one single change: Instead of Havlin's names and appellations, we used Emanuel's.

The experiment succeeded with considerable significance. You can read about it in our paper "New Statistical Evidence for a Genuine Code in Genesis".